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O registro dos primeiros tempos da tentativa de abrir um espaço alternativo de formação, num momento de despedida.
An account of the first years of the Instituto Sedes Sapientiae and of how a group of analysts created a training program that eventually became the Department of Psychoanalysis. Times were difficult, as Brazil and a good part of Latin America lived under military dictatorships. Politically progressive, the program suffered pressure from the IPA society, which saw with very unfavorable eyes the new venture; but it survived and established itself as a reference in the São Paulo analytical scene.
Após quase 20 anos da publicação de “Por uma história do curso de psicanálise”, o autor retoma o relato da ação desenvolvida pelo grupo de psicanalistas que construíram, desde o final dos anos 70, o Curso de Psicanálise do Instituto Sedes Sapientiae.
Having departed for his native Argentina and returned to São Paulo a few years later, Dr. Fuks recapitulates here the main lines of the Department’s growth until present day. Choosing Freud as the basis of or the teaching and a stance of supporting the politically progressive trends in Brazilian society, the program continued to train analysts and made alliances with similarly minded programs in the area of public mental health care.
Ensinar psicanálise é um ato psicanalítico. É um projeto de desalienação. Formar um psicanalista – como entender este programa?
For Ms. Schnaiderman, to train an analyst is in itself an analytic endeavor, and the aim of such training is essentially desalienation. The transformation aimed at is of course internal, but it takes place in close contact with another, and the future analyst has to be recognized as such by a group of others – other analysts, but also his or her patients.
Este comentário sobre o artigo de Regina Schnaiderman assinala correspondências entre o pensamento da autora e sua atividade de psicanalista.
Regina Schnaiderman was an inspiring figure for a whole generation of colleagues and disciples. This paper retraces her career and places it in the context in which she became an analyst: the years after Word War Two, which witnessed rapid modernization and industrialization in our country. The author pays homage to her integrity as a researcher, to her wisdom as a leader, and to her generosity as a teacher.
O caminho a percorrer é mais complexo do que o simples endossar de uma das várias opções de formação que hoje se apresentam.
When he wrote this essay. Mr. Tanis had just graduated from the Department of Psychoanalysis. He writes about the identifications of the analyst and about the pressures that the existence of different trends and schools of Psychoanalysis put on the students. He feels that identifications are essential in the process of becoming an analyst, but one must be careful lest they become alienating.
O autor volta a discorrer sobre o tema da formação psicanalítica, retomando o debate proposto em seu artigo no número de estréia de Percurso.
Commenting on his 1988 piece, the author stresses the limits of medical discourse in face of the modern malaise, because it does not take into account the subjective dimension. Psychoanalysis is a child of modernity, in that it divests ego and reason of their supposedly sovereign condition. Its practice involves ethical and epistemological aspects, exemplified in the paradoxes that face our main thinking tool – interpretation. Mr. Tanis also addresses contemporary issues that surround Psychoanalysis in Brazil, such as its relation to the University and the difficulties of doing research in our field.
No alicerce de toda palavra, é a pulsão que insiste. Seguindo de perto as repetições, pode-se rastrear as pegadas das identificações.
At the root of speech, we can hear the insistence of the basic human drives. Repetition can lead to the unveiling of the identifications that structure a subject; this, in turn, shows how we address language as something different from just a tool for communicating ideas and feelings. Ms. Alonso raises questions such as “what does an analyst listen to?” and “from where does he listen to it?”; her suggestion is that meaning is not given beforehand, but weaves itself in the net of signifiers and in the movement of re-signification.
Retomando o texto de 1988, este artigo trata das regras básicas de um processo analítico e reflete sobre as novas exigências que se colocaram à escuta do analista nas duas últimas décadas.
Starting from where she had left the problem in 1988, Ms. Alonso stresses the importance of floating attention and free association in creating room for interpretable language. Under this apparent liberty – apparent, because of the unconscious determinants on both sides of the analytical couple – language flourishes in its polysemic dimensions, opening the way for something more than just self-knowledge: transformation, symptom-reduction and desalienation.
O desejo é o que possibilita a articulação da cadeia significante. Trabalhar com o desejo é trabalhar com a imagem enquanto raiz do verbal.
The author comments on similarities between vanguard literature and Psychoanalysis, and moves on to a discussion of what language means for Jacques Lacan. Charles Sanders Peirce offers her good instruments to analyze the nature of the image as sign and icon. These, in turn, open the way for a discussion of the analyst as a sort of “everyday poet”, because his way of listening transforms discourse into image.
A partir do texto de 1988 e de dois artigos posteriores, a autora observa em seu trajeto um caminhar em direção a formas expressivas para além do discurso, no qual assume proeminência cada vez maior a noção de intensidade afetiva.
Under this poetic title, the author examines her work in the past twenty years. She notices that the direction she has taken both in her practice and in her writings has led her to stress expressive forms beyond discourse, and to strive towards what she calls affective intensity. Her study of structuralism (Popper, Jakobson, Lacan) showed the limitations of this approach; her later work opens more room for meaning. Deleuze and Derrida were useful in this new direction, which blurs frontiers between the arts (music, drawing, poetry), and between them and the task of the psychoanalyst.
A prática de supervisão situa-se na fronteira entre o singular e o univesal, entre o devaneio associativo e o discurso articulado.
Supervision can be located on the border between singular and universal, between associative daydreaming and articulated discourse. There are palpable risks when the supervisor conceives his task as teaching a pre-established knowledge; in fact, supervising is almost exactly the opposite of what a teacher does. It involves suspension of beliefs and of previous knowledge, and a kind of associative elaboration attuned to what is communicated by the analyst being supervised. If conducted in this spirit, supervision can produce analytical effects.
O autor constata que sua visão dos problemas e processos psíquicos envolvidos numa supervisão permanece, no essencial, inalterada desde o artigo de 1988, e retoma a advertência de Pontalis quanto à arrogância das palavras.
Seventeen years after writing his paper, Dr. Menezes remarks that his opinions have changed very little. He continues to see in an essentially identical manner the problems and psychical processes involved in supervision, but adds a comment inspired by Jean-Bertrand Pontalis on the “arrogance of words”. The illusion of a “scientific Psychoanalysis” is strongly criticized, among other reasons because it is producing a steady amount of irrelevancies such as the search for measurable criteria of efficaciousness for Psychoanalysis. Episodes from his own career as an analyst in training illustrate his position, which stresses the unique quality of the experience in an analysis – and therefore in a work that intends to be a psychoanalytic supervision.
A contradição se instala: no território destinado a conter a loucura, é terminantemente proibido enlouquecer.
Working at Juqueri, a big psychiatric hospital, the author finds herself faced with the impossibility of occupying an analytical position, because everything there is arranged to repress desire and hide this very repression behind a mask of care. Patient Conceição reveals this both in her speech and in her behavior: pain, suffering, is precisely what cannot be shown in the institution, or the apparent order will crack.
Dezessete anos depois, celebrando os 20 anos do Departamento de Psicanálise do Instituto Sedes Sapientiae, a autora rememora o percurso da revista, desde o seu início.
Reading her paper, the author reminisces about the path she has traveled since 1988. Psychiatric institutions have changed little, in spite of reforms begun in the 1990s. The experience at Juqueri has been seminal for her, because it showed the need for an interdisciplinary approach even in her ordinary psychoanalytic work.
Na famosa carta 69 a Fliess, Freud comete três erros numa única citação bíblica. Qual poderia ser o sentido desses lapsos?
In his famous letter 69 to Fliess, where he tells about his disavowal of the “theory of seduction”, Freud misquotes a passage from David’s ode on the death of his predecessor, King Saul. Mr. Mezan compares the original Hebrew text with what Freud wrote, and suggests that under this apparent failure of memory lurks an identification with King David, the conqueror of Jerusalem. This identification is based upon Freud’s knowledge of the Bible and is related to his dream “Dear Mother and Men with Bird Beaks”, dreamt at the age of seven. It serves as a narcissistic defense against the depressive state of mind he is prey to when his efforts to understand hysteria seen to flounder.
O autor revisita o texto publicado no primeiro número de Percurso à luz de suas reflexões mais recentes, analisando os contextos afetivos e teóricos que marcam os dois momentos.
The interpretation of Freud’s slip seems to hold good when examined today, says the author. He situates his text in the French context from where it sprang, marked by an acute interest in Freud’s self-analysis and in his biography as a source for understanding both the birth of our discipline and its peculiar nature. Personal motivations and his indebtedness to his teacher, Conrad Stein, are also evoked.
Uma história de partilhamento de experiência e sonhos entre duas gerações diferentes de analistas. De forma condensada como em um sonho, e diante de um sonho, são discutidas teorias humanas sobre o sonhar, e algo novo chega a ser pensado.
Isaías Mehlson, a noted São Paulo analyst, was among the founders of the Curso de Psicanálise in 1977. Many years later, after a clinical seminar in which the author of this paper was a member, Mr. Mehlson told him a dream he had recently dreamed. Mr. Ab’Saber relates the experience of hearing his teacher’s dream to the creation of a brotherhood among analysts of different generations and to the constitution of a tradition in the sense that Winnicott gives to this term. The dream had to do with death, but also illuminates the work Mr. Mehlson accomplished and the battles he had to fight: it is a dream of restoration, he interprets.
Neste número, em que resgatamos a história da nossa instituição e da nossa revista, a Comissão Editorial decidiu incluir este texto, que examina alguns mecanismos ideacionais e afetivos do processo criativo.
What are the intellectual and affective mechanisms at work in the process of creation? Anne Denis suggests here that they have something to do with the action of the death instinct, because it operates in a counter-narcissistic direction both in relation to the ego and to internal objects. Creation necessitates some desidentification from prevailing imagoes. The theory that all psychoanalysts inherit from and accept must be made one’s own, customized as it were, in order not to block original thought – and sublimation depends, in part, of this process of separation, which can attain the level where drives disintricate from each other.
The first colleague to be interviewed by Percurso was involved, in 1988, with the research for his book on violence. He wanted to understand the milieu in which Psychoanalysis in practiced in Brazil, and the phenomenon of violence was then beginning to gain importance. The interview focuses on Dr. Costa’s theoretical conceptions, on his interest in Ethics – particularly in the ethics of Psychoanalysis – and on other problems he was working on.
Em comemoração aos vinte anos de fundação do Departamento de Psicanálise do Instituto Sedes Sapientiae, entrevistamos, no último mês de junho, os integrantes de sua Primeira Comissão de Implantação, remanescentes na qualidade de membros participativos até os dias atuais. Para o leitor incluído diretamente na história transcorrida desde o ato de fundação do Departamento, os depoimentos e as opiniões virão revolver sua memória e estimular a retomada de muitos aspectos e pontos instigantes, por vezes mesmo conflitivos, merecedores de sua reflexão. Para o leitor interessado em conhecer e em apreender essa parte importante da implantação da psicanálise em São Paulo, esperamos contribuir ao dar voz a uma trama de marcas, pensamentos, avaliações e esclarecimentos. Dela podemos ressaltar a construção coletiva e seus princípios políticos sustentados desde a criação do próprio curso de psicanálise, em 1976. Se a trajetória coletiva enfrentou – e enfrenta – conflitos paradoxais específicos e pertinentes a uma vida ativa, relatados em trechos a seguir, o trabalho de constituição do Departamento segue, nessas duas décadas, as trilhas propostas pelos pioneiros sem deixar de acolher certas mudanças exigidas pelo contingente de novos integrantes a cada ano. Talvez possamos mesmo arriscar dizer que uma entrevista deste porte carrega com ela a chance de catalisar diálogos e se prolongar no além de sua leitura. Isso interessa a todo o coletivo atual.
The members of the first Board reminisce about the conditions in which the Department was founded, reflecting on its achievements (and failures). It was created as a space for mutual recognition of colleagues, something that could not happen in a training program in which there were only teachers and students. Its engagement with a politically progressive position in the Brazilian scene and with a permanent questioning of received ideas is stressed. The rules that would govern it were democratically discussed and approved. An appraisal of what has been achieved is presented, together with ideas and discussions on the future of our association.
Tendo em vista as comemorações de 20 anos de fundação do Departamento de Psicanálise do Instituto Sedes Sapientiae, a revista Percurso convidou três colegas a se ocupar de um pequeno trecho do artigo “Política de formação em psicanálise – alinhavando algumas anotações de leitura” (Percurso, ano 1, nº 1), de Regina Schnaiderman. Esta foi a maneira que encontramos de homenagear Regina: dispor suas idéias às observações, críticas e reconsiderações possíveis...
The authors comment on a paragraph of Mr. Schnaiderman’s paper that opens this issue. What are the conditions of psychoanalytic knowledge? Ms. Frochtengarten questions the idea that “Freud demonstrates”: psychoanalysis is rooted in transference, which is incompatible with the idea of demonstration. Ms. Cromberg reflects about the formation of an analyst and about recent proposals to regulate the practice formulated in Brazil. Mr. Gurfinkel tackles the problem of a knowledge that comes from an intersubjective experience “in vivo”, and asks himself: the remarkable diffusion of Psychoanalysis in Brazil in the last twenty years has, or has not, brought with it a relative dilution of the analytic experience?
The author of the first book review published in Percurso (see below) reflects on the double contribution that the section – which has presented some two hundred books since 1988 – has been offering to Brazilian analysts and to the public in general: information about the growing number of good works that appear every year, and formation of the reader, an effect that comes from the mobilization and association the texts published in the section strive to stir in the reader.
Resenha de "O psicanalista e seu ofício" - Conrad Stein. São Paulo, Escuta, 1988, 215 p.
By Janete Frochtengarten – Review of Conrad Stein, "O psicanalista e seu ofício."
This collection of essays by French analyst Conrad Stein has a powerful effect on its reader: the constant effort to undo dogmatic assumptions and to allow for the rising of a kind of thought open to the uncanny, the surprising, the “wild” aspect of the analytic experience. This feature can be noticed in Stein’s writing, whatever the subject he speaks about: transference, interpretation, psychic reality as confronted with outer reality, and so on.
Resenha de "Lacan, a formação do conceito de sujeito" (1932-1949) - Bertrand Ogilvie Rio de Janeiro, Zahar, 136 p.
Este texto foi publicado no jornal Folha de S. Paulo, em maio de 1988, e na revista Percurso, n.1.
By Renata Udler Cromberg – review of Bertrand Ogilvie, Lacan: a formação do conceito de sujeito. The book examines Lacan’s formative years, from his doctoral thesis though the paper on the mirror phase to his work on aggression. Philosophy and psychiatry are the main sources of this highly original elaboration, which would change the landscape of Psychoanalysis in the years to come.
Resenha de "A psique e o eu" - Fabio Herrmann. São Paulo, Editora HePsyché, 1999, 220 p.
By Alice Paes Arruda – review of Fabio Herrmann, A Psique e o Eu. Fabio Herrmann is one of the most original thinkers of Psychoanalysis in Brazil. His “Field Theory” is an important contribution to the investigation of how analysis works, and a welcome refusal of dogmatism in psychoanalytic thought. In his new book, he examines the idea of “ego”, stressing its implicit duplication in all sorts of disguises as a way to reveal how the representation of myself originates. A person has in fact several “selves”, and to map them is an essential part of analytic work.
Resenha de "Vivendo num país de falsos-selves" - Júlio de Mello Filho. Casa do Psicólogo, São Paulo, 2003.
By Teresa Elisete Gonçalves, review of Julio de Mello Filho, Vivendo num país de falsos-selves. The title of this review alludes to a line from the Brazilian national anthem: “you are a gentle mother to the children of this land”. It is not always the case, argues the author, as he analyses phenomena of daily life in Brazil which favor the construction of a false self. Institutional rules, family situations, specific pathologies such as psychopathy and addiction are investigated, opening vistas on politics, cinema, education and other areas. The hidden grimace of a “bad stepmother”, the author argues, can be discerned behind the face of the “good enough mother”.
Resenha de "Ferenczi: história, teoria, técnica"- Chaim S. Katz (org.). São Paulo, Editora 34, 1996, 148 p.
By Ivanise Fontes – review of Chaim S. Katz (org.), Ferenczi: história, teoria, técnica. The papers presented in a 1993 colloquium on the Hungarian analyst stress the actuality of his ideas. From the socio-cultural context of 1900 Hungary in which he lived, through the importance of the Magyar language in the organization of Ferenczi’s general outlook, to the origins of the Budapest school, with its distinctive features, the contributors examine Ferenczi’s concepts in several areas: his theory of the symbol and of the object, his ideas about trauma, his contribution to the metapsychology of melancholia, and other issues. His place in the history of the discipline is also assessed.
Resenha de "O amor que rouba sonhos: um estudo sobre a exposição feminina ao HIV" - João Alberto Carvalho. São Paulo, Casa do Psicólogo, 2003, 195 p.
By Eliane Costa Dias – review of João Alberto Carvalho, O amor que rouba sonhos. The vulnerability of women to HIV infection is here discussed, both from an epidemiological point of view and in a dialogue with Psychoanalysis and the social sciences. Gender relations, the author concludes, are organized in a way that favors exposure to the virus in an increasing scale: women’s ideals of romantic love make it difficult for them to believe that their partners have been infidel and contracted HIV.
Resenha de "Leituras psicanalíticas da violência" - Magda Guimarães Khouri, Jassanan Amoroso D. Pastore, Inês Zulema Sucar, Raquel Plut Ajzenberg e Reinaldo Morano Filho (orgs.). São Paulo, Casa do Psicólogo, 2004, 177 p.
By Raya Angel Zonana – review of Magda G. Kouri et al., "Leituras Psicanalíticas da Violência."
This collection of essays by psychoanalysts focuses on the multiple faces of violence, which has become a major problem in Brazil as in other countries. As interdisciplinary approach is patent in almost all the papers, for violence has other roots than psychical; but good work is done in exploring the inner root of violent behavior – helplessness, hatred, frustration, insecurity and other emotions. Examples analyzed include real facts (such as terrorism), literary works (as for instance Euripides’ Medea) and a film by Peter Greenaway.
Resenha de "Psicanálise, literatura e estéticas de subjetivação" - Giovanna Bartucci (org.). Rio de Janeiro, Imago, 2001, 412 p.
By Tania Rivera – review of Giovanna Bartucci (org.), "Psychoanalysis, literature and the aesthetics of subjectivation."
This collection is a sequel to the ones already organized by Miss Bartucci on the relations of Psychoanalysis to visual arts ant to film. Freud considered authors of fiction as valuable models for his explorations on the human mind. The authors of the papers make further advances in this direction, discussing sublimation and creation, literature as mimesis, the fantastic tales of Edgar Allan Poe, the condition of the writer as reader and as “exiled from himself”, and other aspects of the creative process in literature.
Resenha de "Obsessiva neurose" - Manoel Tosta Berlinck (org.). São Paulo, Escuta, 2005, 448 p.
By Renata Udler Cromberg – review of Manuel Tosta Berlinck (org.), "Obsessiva Neurose."
The author situates the pioneering work of Mr. Berlinck as a publisher specializing in Psychoanalysis in the broader context of Brazilian analytic landscape since the mid-eighties. From this, she proceeds to comment on the papers reunited in this collection, which, she feels, are a good sample – even if concentrated on a specific subject, obsessive neurosis – of what has been done in on field in the last two decades. It presents some classics on this disease (Abraham, Jones, Green, among others) and eight essays by leading Brazilian analysts, which tackle different aspects of the subject and, in their connection, offer a good metapsychologic and clinical portrait of this still puzzling pathology.
Resenha de "O Corpo em OFF – a doença e as práticas psi na pediatria hospitalar" - Cristina Surani Mora Capobianco. São Paulo, Estação Liberdade, 2003, 247 p.
By Maria Auxiliadora A. C. Arantes – review of Cristina Capobianco, "O corpo em OFF".
Dr. Capobianco has done extensive work in pediatrics and child analysis. Her experiences in children’s hospitals are here discussed, with a focus on what goes in the mind of doctors, nurses and other hospital staff members, and that has direct impact on their little patients. The same acute criticism is directed to the “psy” professionals. The author uses Foucault’s concept of “subordinate knowledge” (knowledge produced by the lower classes and discarded by official science) to show how violence is done to children and to their parents because what they know about themselves and about their condition is ignored by those who “take care” of them.
Resenha de "Partículas elementares" - Michel Houellebecq. Porto Alegre, Sulina, 1999, 340 p.
By Alessandra Monachesi Ribeiro – review of Michel Houellebecq, "Elementary Particles".
The polemical French writer presents a literary illustration of contemporary man as a loser who tries to overcome his condition of unbearable suffering. His novel deals with recent discussions in the humanities and social sciences; the psychoanalyst who reads it is urged to think about time-honored concerns, which are equally relevant today: sexuality, love and death.
Resenha de "Anorexia e bulimia nervosa, uma visão multiprofissional" - Henriette Abramides Bucaretchi (org.). São Paulo, Casa do Psicólogo, 2003, 183 p.
By Eva Wongtschowski – review of Henriette A. Bucaretchi (org.), "Anorexia e bulimia nervosa: uma visão multiprofissional".
The treatment of these alimentary disorders in a public hospital is here discussed. Both are becoming more and more common in our societies, therefore demanding new approaches in theorization and in treatment. Authors address the difficulties involved in a variety of levels, from the history of eating disorders since Antiquity to the problems faced by the families of patients suffering from these disorders. Public polices that could diminish the risks of pandemic eating disorders are also suggested. A case is examined in detail, offering in-depth insights on the mental and emotional organization of the disorder.